::: 首頁   資訊與服務    研究成果  
研究成果

高齡失智者友善社區環境設計準則

計畫主持人: 蔡淑瑩
協同主持人:
執行單位:
執行期程:
GPN:
ISBN:
MOIS:
組別: 綜合規劃組
執行方式: 委託研究
關鍵詞: 高齡失智者、友善社區、公共空間、環境設計
參考文獻:

中文摘要


一、緣起

根據台灣失智症協會調查資料顯示,我國2015 年65 歲以上患有失智症長者約為24.4 萬人,到民國145 年(2056 年)時,國內的失智人口數將會超過72 萬人,大約平均每10 個高齡者中就有1 人患有失智症。但高齡失智者照顧環境標準有別於一般的高齡友善社區,如果能夠提早針對此課題,因應未來高齡失智者照顧問題,可提供於既有社區環境中,讓高齡失智者得以繼續使用社區設施並持續參與社會活動,能減緩失智者病況,並可讓失智者與照顧者有最友善的使用空間。

高齡失智者照顧環境標準有別於一般的高齡友善社區,高齡失智者友善社區環境設計準則之訂定理念,為考慮高齡失智者所需之社區安全與便利空間,及國內高齡者生活習慣和環境條件…等特性,面對高齡失智者照顧問題時,可提供於既有社區環境中,讓高齡失智者得以繼續使用其社區設施以及公共空間,並可持續參與社會活動,如此將能減緩失智者病況,並讓失智者與照顧者有友善的社區環境。

二、研究方法與過程

本研究計畫考慮失智高齡者所需之社區安全與便利空間及國內高齡者生活習慣和環境條件等特性,並參考國內外相關文獻及設計手冊與指南等,訂出高齡失智者社區環境設計準則,本計畫採用文獻回顧法、觀察法、深入訪談法、設計工作坊、問卷法和GPS 記錄法。

三、重要發現

1.高齡失智友善社區環境評估分為六大指標,包括辨識性、安全性、可及性、社會支持性、舒適性和熟悉性。

2.依據問卷調查結果,高達71%之高齡失智者無法自行回家,對高齡失智者而言重要的場域前三名依序為日間照顧中心、公園綠地和市集。

3.根據設計工作坊之結果,距自宅半徑500 公尺(約步行15 分鐘)的範圍內,應有夜市(20%)、宮廟(16%)、公園(16%)和市場(16%)。

4.建議高齡失智友善社區居住環境服務圈,距自宅半徑100 公尺為必要公共服務設施,須有公車站、街角公園、便利商店、市場…等,500 公尺範圍內,則應有公園、日間照顧中心、咖啡店、宗教場域…等, 而500 公尺外需有醫院、捷運站和火車站。

5.高齡失智友善社區環境準則可分為「街道布局」、「建築型態」和「環境線索」共三大要項,可以讓高齡失智者在熟悉友善社區環境中,受到尊重,達到安心與安全的生活。

四、主要建議事項

綜合問卷、GPS 路徑調查和設計工作坊的結果,從分析中得知失智長者對於社區環境中場所設施有一定的需求,但仍缺乏許多適合失智症患者活動之場所空間,故未來台灣社區環境在道路系統、指標系統、交通網絡、鋪面、環境辨識性(包含地標和五感刺激)、失智友善商店、歷史場域、宗教空間…等方面,除了通用設計的考量,應在色彩和材質上有更細膩的處理,從高齡失智者的角度規劃設計,另外,機能場域之友善設施應考量到,失智症之相關病程,如:輕度失智者可能因體能較好,能夠自行行走,因此我們必須藉由社區環境的友善營造,達到輕度失智者病程之延緩。此外,在我國政策面上,我國應思考如何提升民眾對於失智症相關資訊及政策公開透明化…等皆是重要之議題。本研究也提出下列具體可行的建議事項:

建議一

可編製成「高齡失智者友善社區環境設計手冊」,供環境規劃者、建築師、社區總體營造、社區發展協會、照顧者…等改善社區環境時參考:立即可行建議。

主辦機關:衛生福利部。

協辦機關:內政部建築研究所、中華民國全國建築師公會。

本研究觀察高齡失智者於社區環境之行為特性,歸納整理所需之環境需求,建議可編製「高齡失智者友善社區環境設計手冊」,讓環境規劃者、建築師、社區總體營造、社區發展協會、照顧者…等人員,改善社區環境時可做參考。

建議二

未來針對療癒性環境用於高齡社會之評估進行研究:立即可行建議。

主辦機關:內政部建築研究所。

協辦機關:衛生福利部。

本研究針對高齡失智者之居住環境服務圈,提出社區中應有公園、美術館、博物館、圖書館、友善商店…等設施,可提供適合高齡失智者的展覽或活動,增加失智者與大眾交流的機會,並藉此增加一般民眾對失智症的認識,進而成為失智友善之社會。未來可針對療癒性環境進行研究。

建議三

未來針對閒置空間活化為高齡者日間照顧據點進行研究:立即可行建議。

主辦機關:內政部建築研究所。

協辦機關:衛生福利部。

本研究成果可作為後續研究之參考,並參考國內外相關文獻與設計指標或手冊,針對閒置空間活化為高齡者日間照顧據點進行研究,提供更加多元的照顧選擇,進一步達到高齡者安全且安心的生活環境目標。



英文摘要


1. Background

According to the data, now a day the population of seniors with dementia is nearly

to 230.000 in Taiwan. When 2056 the population of seniors with dementia will growth

to 720.000, and there is one seniors with dementia in every 10 seniors. In addition, the

age friendly environments for dementia is different form the aged friendly community.

In the future when we facing the problem with care for the seniors with dementia, we

should provide more friendly facilities and services in the community. Therefore, the

seniors with dementia could use the facilities and join the community activities that can

slow the disease of dementia.

The standard of care environment for senior of dementia are different as regular

aged friendly community, and dementia friendly environment community are

considering about the safe and convince space for senior with dementia, also the

dementia friendly environment community considers about the living habits and

environmental conditions of seniors in Taiwan. Provide the community space with

facilities, public space, and activities that for senior with dementia, can reduce the

sickness of dementia, also can make the senior with dementia and their caregivers has

the better community environments.

2. Research methods and process

This research considers about the safety and convince in the community for the

seniors with dementia, also considers about the lifestyle and environmental conditions

in Taiwan, and references relevant literatures. This research result could create a

design principle about the aged friendly environments for the seniors with dementia,

which can be used as a renovation reference for ordinary people, and construction

industry. This research using the Literature review, observation, in-depth interviews,

design workshops, questionnaires and GPS recording.

3. Key Findings

a.Dementia friendly community’s environmental assessment tools are including

identification, security, accessibility, social support, comfort and familiarity.

b.According to the result of questionnaires there are 71% of senior of dementia

can’t go home alone. The most Important fields are daycare center, park, and market.

c.According to the result of workshops, 500 meters away from home radius should

have nights market(20%), temple(16%), park(16%) and market(16%).

d.Friendly community living environment service circle for senior with dementia

should have the bus stop, concern park convenience stores and markets in radius

of 100 meters away from home, should have park, day care center, coffee shops,

and religious fields in radius of 500 meters away from home, and out of 500

meters should have hospital, MRT station and train station.

e.There are three main elements of Dementia friendly environments community

such as "street layout", "architectural style" and "environmental clues”, can

make the senior with dementia feels safe and secure in the familiar and friendly

community.

4. Suggestions

According to the result of questionnaires, workshops and GPS records, the senior of

dementia needs the locale facilities in community environment, but the activities

space for the dementia are still not enough. Therefore, in the future should have the

Universal design, and consider about the user angle senior of dementia to use the

color and materials on the road systems, indicator systems, transport networks,

pavement, environmental identification (including landmarks and five senses),

dementia-friendly stores, historical sites, religious spaces. Besides that, the friendly

facilities of the functional space should consider about the stage of dementia, such as

senior with mild stage of dementia might have the better physical function, that can

walk alone, so creating friendly environments could make the disease stay at the same

stage. Also, on the national policy have to consider promote the knowledge of the

dementia et al., this research also list the specific Possible recommendations.

Suggestions 1

To create a design guide book of “friendly communities for senior with dementia”

that can have used as a renovation for Environmental planners, architects, community

general builders, community development associations, caregivers: immediately

viable recommendations

Organizer: Ministry of Health and Welfare.

Co-Organizer: Architecture and Building Research Institute, MOI, Union

international des architects.

This research study the behavioral characteristics of seniors with dementia, and

analysis their needs in the environment. Using the research to create a design guide

book of “friendly communities for senior with dementia” that can have used as a renovation for Environmental planners, architects, community general builders,

community development associations, caregivers.

Suggestions 2

In the future can using the healing environment to analysis the aged society:

immediately viable recommendations.

Organizer: Architecture and Building Research Institute, MOI.

Co-Organizer: Ministry of Health and Welfare.

This research study the residential service circle of senior with dementia, and

suggestion should have the park, art galleries, museums, libraries, and friendly shops

et al., in the community., and have the activities for senior with dementia, to creat e a

chance of communications for dementia and people, and improve the knowledge of

dementia for the general public. Therefore, to create dementia friendly society. In the

future can using the healing environment to analysis the aged society.

Suggestions 3

In the future using the Idle space to change into day care center for senior:

immediately viable recommendations.

Organizer: Architecture and Building Research Institute, MOI.

Co-Organizer: Ministry of Health and Welfare.

This research result can use as the reference in the follow up study, and reference to

relevant literatures or design principles. using the Idle space to change into day care

center for senior research, and provide the multiple care selection. In the end, create

the safe and secure living environment for the senior.