::: 首頁   資訊與服務    研究成果  
研究成果

長照機構全尺度居室火災探測及滅火設備之實驗及驗證分析

計畫主持人: 王榮進
協同主持人: 鍾基強
執行單位:
執行期程:
GPN:
ISBN:
MOIS:
組別: 安全防災組
執行方式: 協同研究
關鍵詞: 長照機構、火警偵煙設備、水自動滅火設備
參考文獻:

中文摘要


一、研究緣起:

歷年來台灣長照機構因發生火警而造成嚴重傷亡的原因,往往是機構內大量行動不方便或應變能力較弱的人員,無法自行且迅速垂直避難逃生所引起。考量到長照機構等類似場所,在不易完成垂直避難的前題下,勢必需提升其住房寢室在火災初期時的安全防護,若能提早偵測到火災發生,不僅可以避免大規模的人員逃生,也能同時避免生命財產的損失。

早期國內《建築技術規則》、《各類場所消防安全設備設置標準》中規定,小型長照機構僅需滿足最低設備設置要求,如滅火器、火警偵煙探測設備等等。但此類機構中所服務或收容之對象應變能力與逃生避難行為皆屬弱勢。故對於火災發生初期之滅火無能為力,災害擴大後也無法自行避難逃生。因此,既有的火警偵煙探測設備與水自動滅火設備其偵知與抑制火災的能力勢必需要更加深入研究探討及性能驗證分析。

本研究以全尺寸實驗探討三種水自動滅火設備(一般自動撒水、水道連結型、低壓細水霧)在不同火災情境下之滅火性能,以及研究起火點位置對光電式局限型偵煙探測器(一種、二種)與吸氣式偵煙探測系統,在偵知時間上的影響差異,同時利用Pyrosim電腦模擬軟體進行火場煙流特性之研究分析,並透過改變排煙設備的排煙大小,評估法定排煙量是否滿足排煙性能,最終彙整模擬數據與實驗結果提出長照機構使用火災探測及滅火設備參考。

二、研究方法與過程:

長照機構的人口特性普遍為行動不便或應變能力較差的高齡者,當此種機構發生火災時,機構內大量弱勢人員往往不易進行避難逃生而造成傷亡。故此種機構若能及早發現火災並快速撲滅火勢,將是減少災情擴大與傷亡的不二法則。本年度將延續上年度【老人福利機構火警探測、自動撒水設備驗證基準及避難器具檢討之研究】之研究成果,加以研究並確立不同水自動滅火設備對機構住房內泡棉床墊火災特性之滅火效能驗證分析,並分析不同起火位置對不同火警偵煙探測設備的有效反應分析。

計畫實施上,採用的研究方法以「文獻回顧」、「電腦模擬分析」、「實測研究」等為主,茲分述如下:

 (一)、文獻回顧

蒐集國內外相關消防法規、文獻、已發生的案例,進行資料統整及分析,作為後續電腦模擬分析及全尺寸實驗之規劃及設置依據,減少不必要或多餘的實驗成本及時間的浪費。

 (二)、電腦模擬分析

利用Pyrosim電腦模擬軟體進行全尺寸居室之煙流特性與危害氣體分析,從而評估法定排煙量是否滿足排煙性能,以及不同排煙類型之排煙設備的性能優勢。

(三)、實測研究

預計在雲林科技大學實驗場的實驗空間來進行全尺寸實驗。彙整模擬數據與實驗結果後,提出應用於長照機構使用的火災探測及滅火設備參考。

三、重要發現:

1.依據實驗觀察,即使環境溫度已達認可基準之氣流溫度,若是氣流速度未能一併滿足,則有可能導致延遲一般水自動滅火系統及水道連結型自動撒水設備撒水頭作動反應。但此時火警自動警報設備已動作,而火勢尚未擴大,自衛消防編組人員應可持手動滅火設備進行初期滅火。

2.透過全尺寸實驗結果及模擬結果,加上起火室人員完全疏散時間進行比較分析,得知居室以法定要求設置排煙設備,其排煙性能足以使起火室人員安全避難逃生,故推論法定排煙量應可滿足居室排除濃煙所需之性能。

3.綜合本研究所進行之全尺寸實驗結果後,細水霧自動撒水設備綜合效能較優,但該設備啟動後可能會與濃煙混合造成視線障礙不利於救助住房內之避難弱者;一般水自動滅火系統雖控火效果較佳但因空間需求過高不易裝設;而水道連結型自動撒水設備雖空間需求與設置成本較低,但滌煙效果較弱,故建議長照機構考量自身條件與需求擇一設置。

4.在火災探測方面,吸氣式偵煙探測系統相較於光電式局限型偵煙探測器(一種)偵知時間提早約5~8%,相較於光電式局限型偵煙探測器(二種)偵知時間提早約16~48%,故建議長照機構考量設置光電式偵煙探測器(一種)或吸氣式偵煙探測系統,以利及早發現狀況,爭取反應及救援時間。同時,若偵煙探測器至角落距離若大於偵煙探測器至最近牆面距離2倍以上時,該居室應考慮增設偵煙探測器,以避免火源距離偵煙探測器過遠,導致偵知時間過久。

四、主要建議事項:

建議ㄧ

立即可行之建議:建立滅火設備同等滅火效能之驗證方法及基準

主辦機關:內政部消防署

協辦機關:內政部建築研究所

依據消防署有關《各類場所消防安全設備設置標準》第17條修正條文(106.9.20公告預告修正草案)規定:「未達1000 m2場所得設置水道連結型自動撒水設備或與現行法令同等滅火效能之滅火設備…」,國內目前尚無「同等滅火效能」之相關規範,建議後續研究可可參考ISO6182-10或UL1626建立滅火設備同等滅火效能之功能驗證方法及基準,以供消費者基於本身環境條件等限制下,可安裝適合且有效的消防安全設備。

建議二

立即可行之建議:將國內老人福利機構實際內裝材料之現況與防焰寢具進行後續研究與全尺寸實驗

主辦機關:內政部建築研究所

協辦機關:內政部營建署、內政部消防署

本研究於今年度完成長照機構全尺度居室火災探測及滅火設備之實驗及驗證分析,惟實驗過程中僅針對偵煙探測系統之反應與自動滅火設備之效能,以報廢之被褥、床墊、床單、枕頭進行燃燒實測,並未考量國內長照機構實際內裝材料之現況與防焰寢具對於火場燃燒所造成的影響,建議後續研究可將內裝材料與防焰寢具之燃燒行為進行全尺寸實驗。



英文摘要


1、Research Origin:

Over the years, the cause of serious injuries and deaths caused by fires in the Taiwan health care institutions. It is often caused by a large number of people in the organization who are inconvenient to move or have weak resilience, and are unable to evacuate themselves vertically and quickly. In consideration of similar places such as the Changsha Agency, under the premise of completing vertical evacuation, it is necessary to improve the safety protection of their dormitories in the early stage of the fire. If the fire can be detected early, not only can large-scale personnel escape; also avoid the loss of life and property.

The "Technical Rules for Buildings" and "Standards for Setting Fire Safety Equipment in Various Places" stipulated that small long-term photo institutions need only meet the minimum equipment requirements, such as fire extinguishers, fire detection smoke detection equipment, and so on. However, the resilience and escape behavior of the people served or contained in such institutions are weak. Therefore, there is nothing that can be done to extinguish the fire in the early stage of the fire, and it is impossible to evacuate after the disaster has expanded. Therefore, the existing fire detection smoke detection equipment and water automatic fire extinguishing equipment's ability to detect and suppress fires is bound to require more in-depth research and analysis and performance verification analysis.

This study uses full-scale experiments to investigate the fire extinguishing performance of three types of water automatic fire extinguishing equipment (general automatic sprinkler, water channel knot type, low-pressure fine water mist) in different fire situations, and to study the location of the fire point for the photoelectric limited smoke detector ( One type, two types) and the inhalation type smoke detection system, detect the difference in the impact of time, at the same time use Pyrosim computer simulation software to study and analyze the characteristics of smoke flow in the fire field, and by changing the size of smoke exhaust equipment Evaluate whether the statutory smoke exhaust capacity meets the smoke exhaust performance, and finally summarize the simulation data and experimental results to propose a reference for the use of fire detection and fire extinguishing equipment by long-term photo agencies.

2、Research method:

The hearth care institutions are generally elderly people with reduced mobility or poor resilience. When a fire occurs in such institutions, a large number of vulnerable people in the institutions are often not easy to escape and cause casualties. Therefore, if such an organization can detect a fire early and quickly extinguish the fire, it will be the only rule to reduce the spread of the disaster and the casualties. This year will continue the research results of the previous year's [Research on Fire Detection, Verification Standards for Automatic Sprinkling Equipment, and Review of Refuge Apparatus for Elderly Welfare Institutions] to study and establish the fire extinguishing effectiveness of different water automatic fire extinguishing equipment on the fire characteristics of foam mattresses in institutional housing Validation analysis, and analysis of effective response analysis of different fire detection smoke detection equipment at different fire positions.

(1)、Literature Review

Collect domestic and foreign related fire regulations, literature, and cases that have occurred, conduct data integration and analysis as the basis for subsequent computer simulation analysis and planning and setting of full-scale experiments, reducing unnecessary or unnecessary experimental costs and waste of time.

(2)、computer simulation

Pyrosim computer simulation software was used to analyze the smoke flow characteristics and hazardous gases of the full-size room, so as to evaluate whether the legal smoke exhaust capacity meets the smoke exhaust performance and the performance advantages of different smoke exhaust equipment.

(3)、Field study

Full-scale experiments are expected in the experimental space of the Yunlin University of Science and Technology experimental field. After compiling the simulation data and experimental results, a reference for the fire detection and fire extinguishing equipment used in the health care agency is proposed.

3、Important findings:

1.According to experimental observations, even if the ambient temperature has reached the approved airflow temperature, if the airflow speed is not met at the same time, it may cause a delay in the response of the sprinkler heads of ordinary water automatic fire extinguishing systems and waterway-linked automatic sprinkler equipment. However, at this time, the automatic fire alarm equipment has been activated, and the fire has not yet expanded. Self-defense firefighters should be able to carry out manual fire extinguishing equipment for initial fire suppression.

2.Through full-scale experimental results and simulation results, plus a complete analysis of the evacuation time of the personnel in the fire room, it is known that the smoke-exhausting equipment in the room is legally required, and its smoke exhaust performance is sufficient to allow the fire room personnel to escape from the fire safely. The amount of smoke exhausted should be able to meet the performance required to remove dense smoke in the room.

3.After synthesizing the results of the full-scale experiments conducted by this research institute, the comprehensive efficiency of the automatic spraying device for fine water mist is better, but after the device is started, it may be mixed with thick smoke and cause visual obstruction, which is not conducive to helping the vulnerable people in the shelter; Although the automatic fire extinguishing system has better fire control effect, it is not easy to install due to the high space requirement; while the waterway-connected automatic sprinkler equipment has low space requirements and installation cost, but the effect of cleaning the smoke is weak, it is recommended that the long-term photo agency consider its own conditions Choose the setting you want.

4.The detection time of the aspirating smoke detection system is about 5-8% faster than that of the photoelectric limited type smoke detector (one type), compared with the photoelectric limited type smoke detector (two types). The time is about 16 ~ 48% earlier. Therefore, it is recommended that the long-term photo agency consider setting up a photoelectric smoke detector (one) or an aspirating smoke detection system to facilitate early detection of the situation and strive for response and rescue time. At the same time, if the distance from the smoke detector to the corner is greater than twice the distance from the smoke detector to the nearest wall, the room should consider adding a smoke detector to avoid the fire source being too far away from the smoke detector, leading to detection. Know that time is too long.

4、Major recommendations:

Suggestion 1:

Immediately feasible recommendations: Establish verification methods and benchmarks for equivalent fire suppression effectiveness of fire suppression equipment

Host:Fire Department, Ministry of the Interior

Co-organizer:Institute of Architecture, Ministry of the Interior

According to the Fire Department's amendments to Article 17 of the "Standards for Setting up Fire Safety Equipment in Various Places" (106.9.20 Announcement and Draft Amendment Notice), it is stipulated that: "Under 1,000m2, waterway-connected automatic sprinkler equipment or fire extinguishing performance equivalent to the existing laws "Fire extinguishing equipment ...", there is currently no relevant standard for "equivalent fire extinguishing efficiency" in China. It is suggested that follow-up research may refer to ISO6182-10 or UL1626 to establish functional verification methods and benchmarks for equivalent fire extinguishing performance of fire extinguishing equipment for consumers based on their environmental conditions. Under such restrictions, suitable and effective fire safety equipment can be installed.

Suggestion 2:

Immediately feasible suggestion: follow-up research and full-scale experiments on the current situation of actual interior materials and flame-proof bedding in domestic welfare institutions for the elderly

Host:Institute of Architecture, Ministry of the Interior

Co-organizers:Construction Department of the Ministry of the Interior, Fire Department of the Ministry of the Interior

This study completed the experiment and verification analysis of the full-scale room fire detection and fire extinguishing equipment of the long-term photo agency this year. However, during the experiment, it only focused on the response of the smoke detection system and the effectiveness of the automatic fire extinguishing equipment to scrapped bedding, mattresses, sheets The actual combustion of pillows was not measured, and the actual conditions of the interior materials of domestic long-term photo agencies and the impact of flame-proof bedding on fire scene combustion were not considered. It is suggested that follow-up studies can be performed on the combustion behavior of the interior materials and flame-proof bedding.