Over the years, the cause of serious injuries and deaths caused by fires in the Taiwan health care institutions. It is often caused by a large number of people in the organization who are inconvenient to move or have weak resilience, and are unable to evacuate themselves vertically and quickly. In consideration of similar places such as the Changsha Agency, under the premise of completing vertical evacuation, it is necessary to improve the safety protection of their dormitories in the early stage of the fire. If the fire can be detected early, not only can large-scale personnel escape; also avoid the loss of life and property.
The "Technical Rules for Buildings" and "Standards for Setting Fire Safety Equipment in Various Places" stipulated that small long-term photo institutions need only meet the minimum equipment requirements, such as fire extinguishers, fire detection smoke detection equipment, and so on. However, the resilience and escape behavior of the people served or contained in such institutions are weak. Therefore, there is nothing that can be done to extinguish the fire in the early stage of the fire, and it is impossible to evacuate after the disaster has expanded. Therefore, the existing fire detection smoke detection equipment and water automatic fire extinguishing equipment's ability to detect and suppress fires is bound to require more in-depth research and analysis and performance verification analysis.
This study uses full-scale experiments to investigate the fire extinguishing performance of three types of water automatic fire extinguishing equipment (general automatic sprinkler, water channel knot type, low-pressure fine water mist) in different fire situations, and to study the location of the fire point for the photoelectric limited smoke detector ( One type, two types) and the inhalation type smoke detection system, detect the difference in the impact of time, at the same time use Pyrosim computer simulation software to study and analyze the characteristics of smoke flow in the fire field, and by changing the size of smoke exhaust equipment Evaluate whether the statutory smoke exhaust capacity meets the smoke exhaust performance, and finally summarize the simulation data and experimental results to propose a reference for the use of fire detection and fire extinguishing equipment by long-term photo agencies.
The hearth care institutions are generally elderly people with reduced mobility or poor resilience. When a fire occurs in such institutions, a large number of vulnerable people in the institutions are often not easy to escape and cause casualties. Therefore, if such an organization can detect a fire early and quickly extinguish the fire, it will be the only rule to reduce the spread of the disaster and the casualties. This year will continue the research results of the previous year's [Research on Fire Detection, Verification Standards for Automatic Sprinkling Equipment, and Review of Refuge Apparatus for Elderly Welfare Institutions] to study and establish the fire extinguishing effectiveness of different water automatic fire extinguishing equipment on the fire characteristics of foam mattresses in institutional housing Validation analysis, and analysis of effective response analysis of different fire detection smoke detection equipment at different fire positions.
Collect domestic and foreign related fire regulations, literature, and cases that have occurred, conduct data integration and analysis as the basis for subsequent computer simulation analysis and planning and setting of full-scale experiments, reducing unnecessary or unnecessary experimental costs and waste of time.
Pyrosim computer simulation software was used to analyze the smoke flow characteristics and hazardous gases of the full-size room, so as to evaluate whether the legal smoke exhaust capacity meets the smoke exhaust performance and the performance advantages of different smoke exhaust equipment.
Full-scale experiments are expected in the experimental space of the Yunlin University of Science and Technology experimental field. After compiling the simulation data and experimental results, a reference for the fire detection and fire extinguishing equipment used in the health care agency is proposed.
1.According to experimental observations, even if the ambient temperature has reached the approved airflow temperature, if the airflow speed is not met at the same time, it may cause a delay in the response of the sprinkler heads of ordinary water automatic fire extinguishing systems and waterway-linked automatic sprinkler equipment. However, at this time, the automatic fire alarm equipment has been activated, and the fire has not yet expanded. Self-defense firefighters should be able to carry out manual fire extinguishing equipment for initial fire suppression.
2.Through full-scale experimental results and simulation results, plus a complete analysis of the evacuation time of the personnel in the fire room, it is known that the smoke-exhausting equipment in the room is legally required, and its smoke exhaust performance is sufficient to allow the fire room personnel to escape from the fire safely. The amount of smoke exhausted should be able to meet the performance required to remove dense smoke in the room.
3.After synthesizing the results of the full-scale experiments conducted by this research institute, the comprehensive efficiency of the automatic spraying device for fine water mist is better, but after the device is started, it may be mixed with thick smoke and cause visual obstruction, which is not conducive to helping the vulnerable people in the shelter; Although the automatic fire extinguishing system has better fire control effect, it is not easy to install due to the high space requirement; while the waterway-connected automatic sprinkler equipment has low space requirements and installation cost, but the effect of cleaning the smoke is weak, it is recommended that the long-term photo agency consider its own conditions Choose the setting you want.
4.The detection time of the aspirating smoke detection system is about 5-8% faster than that of the photoelectric limited type smoke detector (one type), compared with the photoelectric limited type smoke detector (two types). The time is about 16 ~ 48% earlier. Therefore, it is recommended that the long-term photo agency consider setting up a photoelectric smoke detector (one) or an aspirating smoke detection system to facilitate early detection of the situation and strive for response and rescue time. At the same time, if the distance from the smoke detector to the corner is greater than twice the distance from the smoke detector to the nearest wall, the room should consider adding a smoke detector to avoid the fire source being too far away from the smoke detector, leading to detection. Know that time is too long.
Immediately feasible recommendations: Establish verification methods and benchmarks for equivalent fire suppression effectiveness of fire suppression equipment
Host:Fire Department, Ministry of the Interior
Co-organizer:Institute of Architecture, Ministry of the Interior
According to the Fire Department's amendments to Article 17 of the "Standards for Setting up Fire Safety Equipment in Various Places" (106.9.20 Announcement and Draft Amendment Notice), it is stipulated that: "Under 1,000m2, waterway-connected automatic sprinkler equipment or fire extinguishing performance equivalent to the existing laws "Fire extinguishing equipment ...", there is currently no relevant standard for "equivalent fire extinguishing efficiency" in China. It is suggested that follow-up research may refer to ISO6182-10 or UL1626 to establish functional verification methods and benchmarks for equivalent fire extinguishing performance of fire extinguishing equipment for consumers based on their environmental conditions. Under such restrictions, suitable and effective fire safety equipment can be installed.
Immediately feasible suggestion: follow-up research and full-scale experiments on the current situation of actual interior materials and flame-proof bedding in domestic welfare institutions for the elderly
Host:Institute of Architecture, Ministry of the Interior
Co-organizers:Construction Department of the Ministry of the Interior, Fire Department of the Ministry of the Interior
This study completed the experiment and verification analysis of the full-scale room fire detection and fire extinguishing equipment of the long-term photo agency this year. However, during the experiment, it only focused on the response of the smoke detection system and the effectiveness of the automatic fire extinguishing equipment to scrapped bedding, mattresses, sheets The actual combustion of pillows was not measured, and the actual conditions of the interior materials of domestic long-term photo agencies and the impact of flame-proof bedding on fire scene combustion were not considered. It is suggested that follow-up studies can be performed on the combustion behavior of the interior materials and flame-proof bedding.