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建築物提供視覺障礙者及聽覺障礙者之無障礙設施設計改善研究:美國身心障礙者法案無障礙設計標準、日本顧慮到高齡者、身障者等順暢移動之建築設計標準及我國建築物無障礙設施設計規範之比較

計畫主持人: 張志源
協同主持人:
執行單位:
執行期程:
GPN:
ISBN:
MOIS:
組別: 綜合規劃組
執行方式: 自行研究
關鍵詞: 視覺障礙者、聽覺障礙者、建築物無障礙設施設計規範、美國身心障礙者法案無障礙設計標準、日本顧慮到高齡者、身障者等順暢移動之建築設計標準
參考文獻:

中文摘要


一、研究緣起與目的

本研究以視聽障者之建築物無障礙環境改善為研究對象,從美國身心障礙者法案無障礙設計標準、日本顧慮到高齡者、身障者等順暢移動之建築設計標準、我國建築物無障礙設施設計規範之設計條文進行分析比較。本研究係依據「高齡者安全安心生活環境科技計畫」項下「先進國家身心無障礙法令趨勢」課題。由於我國高齡社會已來臨,未來視聽障者人數將急遽增加,本研究希望對我國「建築物無障礙設施設計規範」及相關法令提供建議內容。

研究目的如下:

(一)透過美國身心障礙者法案無障礙設計標準、日本顧慮到高齡者、身障者等順暢移動之建築設計標準、我國建築物無障礙設施設計規範條文之比較,分析提供給視聽障者之無障礙設施設備內容及特色。

(二)透過分析美國、日本、我國視聽障者之建築物無障礙環境改善案例,瞭解設計需求及設計重點。

(三)透過專家座談及個別訪談瞭解視聽障者空間需求及相關法令建議。

(四)提出我國未來「建築物無障礙設施設計規範」及相關法令修正條文建議內容。

二、研究方法及過程

(一)研究方法

1.文獻分析:針對美國身心障礙者法案無障礙設計標準、日本顧慮到高齡者、身障者等順暢移動之建築設計標準、我國建築物無障礙設施設計規範條文,從視聽障者之建築物無障礙環境改善角度,進行法令架構及內容之分析。

2.案例調查與分析:針對美國、日本、我國提供視聽障者需求之建築物無障礙環境改善案例進行分析,釐清設計重點及空間設計手法。

3.專家座談及個別訪談:瞭解我國建築物無障礙法令問題,並探討科技如何輔助視聽障者,提出我國建築物無障礙法令條文修正建議內容。

(二)研究步驟

步驟1:就美國、日本、我國建築物無障礙設計規範中提供給視聽障者之無障礙環境條文,進行資料收集及分析。

步驟2:針對美國、日本、我國針對視聽障者建築物無障礙環境改善案例進行調查分析。

步驟3:召開專家會議及個別視聽障者訪談,提出我國「建築物無障礙設施設計規範」及相關法令建議內容。

步驟4:提出未來我國建築物無障礙法令修正建議。

三、重要發現  

(一)我國建築物無障礙法令針對視聽障者之無障礙設計條文分析

1.我國建築物無障礙法令之母法為身心障礙者權益保障法,建築物無障礙設施設計規範以提供肢體障礙者無障礙環境建構為主,提供給視聽障者之條文較少。建築物無障礙設施設計規範可分為強制性與參考性條文,視聽障者與肢體障礙者雖然許多基本需求類似,但仍有特殊需求。

2.透過訪談發現,視聽障者無障礙設計以安全為主要考量。(1)視障者最需要考量引導設施及取得訊息,包括空間突出物、避難系統、坡道、走廊、出入口、廁所、櫃檯、樓梯、昇降機、浮凸標誌、導盲鈴、地面連續性引導材料、誘導音裝置,以利無障礙環境建構。(2)聽障者最需要諮詢服務及取得訊息,針對聽障者需考量訊息溝通,可透過動態環境或危險情況環境訊息,使無障礙環境建構完善,並考量設置火警閃光震動器、視訊、語音文字轉換設備、筆談設施。此外,空間應考量回音、隔音設施,使聽障者能夠舒適使用空間。

3.透過案例分析,現行提供給視聽障者設施設備主要有App視障者服務系統、觸摸造景、口述影像、語音藥品導覽機、點字菜單、展覽場所視障語音導覽及點字導覽手冊、導盲磚、警示設施、火災警報器。科技的進步能使視聽障者生活更為安全便利,這些設施設備未來得考量納入在建築物無障礙設施設計規範或其他設計標準,以利設計師視實際需要設置。

(二)美國身心障礙者法案無障礙設計標準針對視聽障者之無障礙環境設計條文分析

1.美國身心障礙者法案無障礙設計標準,在電梯、樓梯、通路設計上,與我國建築物無障礙設施設計規範有類似之處,但美國的規範對於通信設備及溝通無障礙設計的客房特別重視,有詳細的規定。

2.美國設計標準對通信設備有許多通則性的規定,包括標誌、火災警報系統、電話、偵測警報、聽覺輔助系統、自動取款機和收費機、雙向通信系統。此外,旅館客房除提供肢體障礙者的無障礙客房外,也提供溝通無障礙設計的客房,以確保視覺障礙者及聽覺障礙者在使用輔具時具備相容性,並重視火災警報系統及視覺通知裝置。

3.通過案例分析,讓視聽障者感受空間位置及環境,主要透過聲音、光線、觸感設計手法,例如透過空間顏色對比、材料紋理對比、點字標示、建築平面浮凸地圖,協助視障者建立心理地圖,亦有透過字幕、放大標示及閃光警示,使聽障者能夠識別空間的安全性及利於溝通。

(三)日本顧慮到高齡者、身障者等順暢移動之建築設計標準針對視覺障礙者及聽覺障礙者之無障礙環境改善法令分析

1.日本顧慮到高齡者、身障者等順暢移動之建築設計標準內容詳細而繁複,提供給視聽障者需求特色為建築規劃要點明示應重視避難的認知性、安全性、資訊傳達有效性。建築計畫要求必須綜合防火區劃、避難計畫、防排煙,考慮語音、手電筒引導可行性及暫時待避空間之規劃。

2.無障礙客房除提供聽障者設置的客房傳達裝置、電話筆談裝置、視障者專用聲音導覽資訊系統外,業者可視實際需要,提供導盲犬、協助犬專用厠所,並可針對聽覺障礙者設置大型播放裝置。視聽障者如住在一般客房內,材料必須重視安全性,客房名稱、標誌、鑰匙、電視、電話機、警報裝置都要能提供資訊內容。

3.透過案例分析及實地調查,發現日本設計標準特色是提供建築師能夠依據規模及機能,考量視覺障礙者及聽覺障礙者之需求,進行引導設施、標誌計畫、觸摸地圖設計,並透過閃光、聲音及空間設計,讓視聽障者能安全舒適的使用空間環境。

(四)我國針對視聽障者之建築物無障礙法令修正建議

1.本研究透過美國、日本、我國針對視聽障者需求之建築物無障礙設計條文的比較,並透過案例分析、專家座談、個案訪談,發現美國與日本針對視聽障的無障礙設計條文值得作為我國參考。

2.考量現行視聽障輔具科技的發達及多元,建議我國建築物無障礙設施設計規範可於附錄修正視覺障礙者引導設施設計指引條文內容,並新增聽覺障礙者之無障礙設計條文內容,讓設計者可依實際需要進行設計。

3.本研究新訂「建築物針對視覺障礙者及聽覺障礙者需求之無障礙環境改善設計基準」 (草案),可提供建築師未來建築物規劃設計參考,並可提供給地方政府,針對需要對視聽障者進行社區照顧時相關環境建置之參考。

四、建議與對策

(一)建議一:本研究成果未來納入「建築物無障礙設施設計規範」條文修正:立即可行建議

主辦機關:內政部營建署

協辦機關:內政部建築研究所

本研究透過美國、日本、我國建築物無障礙設施設計規範對於視聽障者條文的比較分析,擬定「建築物無障礙設施設計規範」附錄修正條文,未來可納入法規修正參考。

(二)建議二:本研究成果擬定「建築物針對視覺障礙者及聽覺障礙者需求之無障礙環境改善設計基準」 (草案),可提供相關單位參考:中長期建議

主辦機關:內政部營建署

協辦機關:內政部建築研究所

本研究擬定「建築物針對視覺障礙者及聽覺障礙者需求之無障礙環境改善設計基準」 (草案),可提供未來建築物規劃設計參考,並可提供給地方政府,針對需要對視聽障者進行社區照顧時相關環境建置之參考(例如社會住宅)。

(三)建議三:本研究針對視聽障者案例研究及美國、日本、我國的建築物無障礙法令比較,可納入「建築物設置無障礙設施設備勘檢人員培訓講習教材」:中長期建議

主辦機關:內政部營建署

協辦機關:內政部建築研究所

本研究對視聽障無障礙環境案例研究,以及美國、日本、我國建築物無障礙法令比較,可納入「建築物設置無障礙設施設備勘檢人員培訓講習教材」,提供給地方政府、業界與民眾參考使用。



英文摘要


1.Origins and Purposes

Based on the research objects of the Accessibility Design Standards of Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), Japan’s Building Design Standards to Facilitate Movement for the Elderly and Disabled, and Taiwan’s Design Specifications for Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities, this research is based on the topic `` Trends in Physical and Mental Accessibility Legislation in Advanced Countries '' under the ``Technology Plan for Safe and Safe Living Environment for the Elderly '', this study targets accessible design provisions for visually- and hearing-impaired people to conduct analysis and comparison.

This research is based on the subject of "Trends in Physical and Mental Accessibility Legislation in Advanced Countries" under the “Technology Plan of Safe and Secure Living Environment for the Elderly”. Owing to the advent of an elderly society in Taiwan, the number of people with visual and hearing impairments will increase sharply in the future: this study aims to provide recommendations for "Design Specifications for Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities " and related regulations.

The research objectives were as follows:

A.Analyze the design specifications for accessible facilities content and features for the visually- and hearing-impaired through comparison of provisions of the Accessibility Design Standards of Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), Japan’s Building Design Standards to Facilitate Movement for the Elderly and Disabled, and Taiwan’s Design Specifications for Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities

B.Understand the needs and design priorities of the visually and the hearing impaired through analyzing cases of improvement of the accessible environment of buildings for the visually and the hearing impaired in the United States, Japan, and Taiwan

C.Understand the space needs and recommendations of the visually and the hearing impaired through expert discussions and individual interviews.

D.Propose amendments for Taiwan’s future “Design Specifications of Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities” and related legislative provisions.

2.Methodology and Procedures

A.Methodology

1.Literature Analysis: Analyzing the development of social housing in Taiwan and abroad and collecting, summarizing and analyzing especially on how to combine community care and accessible design.

2.Case Study: Conducting analysis on cases of social housing in Taiwan, public housing in the US and the government-owned housing in Japan.

3.Interviewing Experts: holding seminars and conducting in-depth interviews with experts to find out their opinions about the regulations related to social housing in Taiwan, its implementation, characteristics as well as their advice for accessible design in the community care environment.

B.Research steps

1.Step 1: Conduct data collection and analysis on the accessible environmental provisions provided to the visual impaired and hearing impaired in the US, Japan and Taiwan’s building accessibility design specifications.

2.Step 2: Investigate and analyze the improvement cases of accessible buildings for the visually and the hearing impaired in the United States, Japan, and Taiwan.

3.Step 3: Convene expert meetings and interview individual persons who are visually or hearing-impaired in order to understand problems with regard to the revision of Taiwan's "Design Specifications of Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities" and related laws and regulations as well as to propose design content aiming at the space requirements of those disabilities.

4.Step 4: Put forward proposals for the amendment of building accessibility decrees in the future.

3.Important Findings

A.Analysis of accessible design provision of Taiwan’s Design Specifications of Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities for the visually impaired and hearing impaired

1.The mother law of the “Design Specifications of Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities” in our country is the    “People with Disabilities Rights Protection Act”, and these specifications are mainly to provide accessible environments for the physically handicapped, with fewer provisions for visually- and hearing-impaired people. It can be divided into mandatory and reference provisions. Although many of the basic needs of the visually- and hearing-impaired people and the physically handicapped are similar (such as flat and non-slip floors), there are still  needs specific to each (such as guidance facilities design, enlarged title design, etc.).

2.Through interviews, this study found that accessibility design for the visually- and hearing-impaired people is mainly focused on safety. (1) Guiding facilities to be considered to facilitate the construction of an accessible environment shall include space protrusions, evacuation systems, ramps, corridors, gateways, toilets, counters, stairs, elevators, embossed signs, guide bell, ground continuity guidance materials, and induction sound devices. (2) Consultation services and information acquisition required to be considered for the hearing impaired shall include dynamic environmental information and environmental information in dangerous situations which can be used to complete the construction of an accessible environment. Installing fire alarm flash vibration devices, video, voice-to-text conversion equipment, pen-talking facilities, space, echo, and soundproofing facilities can enable the hearing impaired to use the space comfortably.

3.Through case studies, it was found that the current facilities and equipment for the visually- and hearing-impaired people include App visually impaired service systems, touch landscaping, dictated images, voice drug audio guides, braille menus, visually impaired audio guides in exhibition venues, and braille guide manuals, tactile floor tiles, warning facilities, and fire alarms. Advances in science and technology can make the life of the visually impaired more secure and convenient. In the future, these facilities and equipment must be considered in the design specifications of accessible facilities in buildings or other design standards, so that designers can include them as needed.

B.Analysis of the clauses on the accessible environment of the Accessibility Design Standards of Americans with Disabilities Act for the visually impaired and hearing impaired

1.The Accessibility Design Standards of Americans with Disabilities Act mainly focus on communication equipment with many general regulations, including signs, fire alarm systems, telephones, detection alarms, hearing assistance systems, ATMs and toll machines, two-way communication systems, etc.

2.American design standards have many general rules for communication equipment, including signs, fire alarm systems, telephones, detection alarms, hearing assistance systems, ATMs, toll collection machines, and two-way communication systems. Hotel rooms, in addition to being rooms accessible by people with physical disabilities, can also have accessible communication design to ensure they are compatible with use by the visually and hearing impaired. Importance should also be attached to fire alarm systems and visual notification devices.

3.In the analysis of design cases, it was found that there are sound, light, and tactile design techniques that allow the visually impaired and hearing impaired to experience spatial location and atmosphere. In addition, there are color contrast of space elements, contrast of materials and textures, braille marks, and embossed maps of architectural planes to help the visually impaired to build psychological maps. In addition, through subtitles, label magnification and flashing, the hearing impaired can recognize the safety of the space and communication can be facilitated.

C.Analysis of Accessibility Improvement Act of Japan’s Building Design Standards in Consideration of the Smooth Movement for the Elderly and Disabled regarding on the visual impaired and hearing impaired

1.The content of Japan’s Building Design Standards to Facilitate Movement for the Elderly and Disabled is detailed and complicated. Its characteristics providing to the visual impaired and hearing impaired are the key points of architectural planning, which clearly indicate that evacuation awareness, safety and the effectiveness of information transmission should be emphasized. Its concept stipulates that the building plan must integrate fire prevention zoning, evacuation plan, and smoke prevention to enable smooth evacuation during disasters, as well as consider the feasibility of voice, flashlight guidance, and planning for temporary shelter spaces.

2.In terms of accessible rooms, in addition to the guest room communication device, telephone writing device, and audio guidance information system designed for the visually impaired, it is suggested that operators provide dedicated toilets for guide dogs and assistance dogs whenever necessary. Furthermore, it is also recommended a large playback device be set up for the hearing impaired as needed. At the same time, if the visually impaired person lives in a general guest room, the materials inside the room must meet concerns for security, and the room name sign, room key, TV, telephone, and alarm device shall be able to provide information content, and to combine with hotel staff software reception service.

3.In addition, through the case analysis and field investigation of the design standard building, it was found that the main feature is to provide architects with the ability to consider the needs of the visually impaired and the hearing impaired according to scale and function. In addition, through the flash and sound and space design, the visually impaired and hearing impaired will be able to use the space environment safely and comfortably.

D.Proposed amendments to Taiwan’s building accessibility decrees

1.After comparing the accessibility design provisions for the visually impaired and hearing impaired between the United States, Japan, and Taiwan and conducting case analysis and expert interviews, this study found that the relevant accessibility design provisions in the United States and Japan are worthy of reference to Taiwan.

2.Considering the development and diversity of current visually impaired assistive technology, it is suggested that the design specifications of accessible facilities in buildings in Taiwan be added in the appendix of accessible design provisions for the visually impaired and hearing impaired so that designs can be made according to practical demands.

3.The "Directions of Operation Reference Manual for Accessible Environment Improvement Design of Buildings for the Needs of the Visually Impaired and Hearing Impaired" (draft) newly proposed by the study can provide a reference for future building planning and design as well as to local governments for reference to environmentally-related construction (such as social housing) in community care for visually- and hearing-impaired people.

4.Recommendations and countermeasures

Recommendation 1: The results of this research could be incorporated into the amendment of “Design Specifications for Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities” in the future: immediately feasible recommendations

Organizer: Construction and Planning Department, Ministry of the Interior

Co-organizer: Architecture and Building Research Institute, MOI

Through the comparative analysis of the Accessibility Design Standards of Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), Japan’s Building Design Standards to Facilitate Movement for the Elderly and Disabled, and Taiwan’s Design Specifications for Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities, this study drew up relevant clause amendments to the appendix of "Design Specifications for Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities" which could be incorporated into the amendments in the future.

Recommendation 2: The research results were used to draw up the "Directions of Operation Reference Manual for Accessible Environment Improvement Design of Buildings for the Needs of the Visually Impaired and Hearing Impaired" (draft) to serve as reference to relevant units.

Organizer: Construction and Planning Department, Ministry of the Interior

Co-organizer: Architecture and Building Research Institute, MOI

The "Directions of Operation Reference Manual for Accessible Environment Improvement Design of Buildings for the Needs of the Visually Impaired and Hearing Impaired" (draft) drawn up by this study can serve as reference for future building planning and design, and can also provide to local governments for reference for environmentally-related construction (such as social housing) in conducting community care for the visually- and hearing-impaired people.

Recommendation 3: This research was a case study targeting the visually impaired and hearing impaired and comparing the accessibility laws of the United States, Japan, and Taiwan. The study results should be able to be included in the "Training Materials for Building Accessibility Facilities and Equipment Survey Personnel Training Course": Medium- and Long-term Recommendation

Organizer: Construction and Planning Department, Ministry of the Interior

Co-organizer: Architecture and Building Research Institute, MOI

In response to the advent of an elderly society, the number of elderly people with visual and/or hearing impairments will increase sharply in the future. The case study results and laws and regulations compared in this research could be included in the "Training Materials for Building Accessibility Facilities and Equipment Survey Personnel Training Course" as well as be provided to Government, industry and the public for reference in the future.