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研究成果

綠建材循環經濟產業鏈結推廣計畫

計畫主持人: 陳文卿
協同主持人: 陳靖原
執行單位: 財團法人環境與發展基金會
執行期程:
GPN:
ISBN:
MOIS:
組別: 環境控制組
執行方式: 業務委託
關鍵詞: 綠建材、循環經濟、產業鏈結、資源再生
參考文獻:

中文摘要


一、計畫緣起

近年國際倡導零廢棄物的循環經濟,建構「最適生產、最適消費、最少廢棄」之循環型社會體系。內政部建築研究所長期推動綠建築成效斐然,而配合綠建築之推動更於2004年推出綠建材標章制度,帶動綠建材產業之蓬勃發展。推動綠建材標章是因應節能減碳政策極重要的工作,尤其是在能源、資源都極為有限且必須仰賴進口的台灣,如何將能資源做最佳化之利用,更是配合蔡總統在2016年就職典禮中所揭示「要讓台灣走向循環經濟的時代,把廢棄物轉換為再生資源」,循環經濟之政策目標中,極為重要之工作。

為強化推動綠建材之循環經濟效益,應針對綠建材之特性,探討符合循環經濟指標之項目,進行相關之評估研究。並針對以「減廢與資源再生」為主要評估基準,且以循環經濟關聯性較密切之再生綠建材為例,探討產業供應鏈之供、需平衡關係,建構以綠建材為核心之循環經濟產業鏈結。

二、研究方法與過程

本計畫先蒐集彙整國內外循環經濟相關法令、基準及資源循環材料管理模式等資料,並分析綠建材產業導入循環經濟模式架構,以提出綠建材推動方向建議。接續遴選有意願業者參與,依綠建材之生命週期,建立循環經濟之示範模式。此外,針對符合循環經濟概念之綠建材,參考其他標章(如第二類環境保護產品)之做法研擬相關評定機制草案,並辦理資源循環及再利用建材之推廣應用策略產官學研座談會。最後,配合循環經濟之發展現況及未來趨勢,提出綠建材標章評定基準草案。另一方面,透過盤點建研所性能實驗中心之「再生綠建材實驗室」相關設施及技術能量,遴選業界廠商與「再生綠建材實驗室」產學研合作計畫並辦理審查會議,最後提出「再生綠建材實驗室」之設備精進建議及產學研合作策略及效益評估報告。

三、重要發現

本研究過程中發現國內綠建材產業導入循環經濟架構所遭遇之困難,包括回收料源的質與量不穩定、政府採購方式對於採購資源化產品並無明顯助益,以及缺乏循環經濟架構之創新產品商業模式與高值化技術研發經費,針對產業問題建議以標章驗證制度確保產品品質,另外,可參採日本環境物品採購推進法之採購作法,將工程類之資源化產品列入採購,或採補助、獎勵方式,提供使用資源化產品廠商相關補貼,以促進資源化產品之去化,並以相關研發補助經費,協助產業進行創新產品商業模式與高值化技術研發。另一方面,本研究以混凝土粒料(玻璃砂粒料)及高壓混凝土地磚等兩項再生綠建材進行循環經濟產業體系評估發現,整體效益包含節約61,991噸之原生資源使用量、減少57,679噸廢棄物產出及減少40,425噸CO2排放,並節省3,002萬元原生料使用成本及1.3億元之廢棄物處理費。藉由建立綠建材循環經濟產業體系鏈結,可協助產業解決導入循環經濟架構之問題,並彰顯綠建材於循環經濟推動之顯著效益。

四、主要建議事項

根據研究結果,本研究針對綠建材循環經濟推動策略,提出下列建議,分別從立即可行建議及中長期建議列舉如下:

建議一

持續推動建立綠建材循環經濟產業鏈結:立即可行建議

主辦機關:內政部建研所

協辦機關:各綠建材業者

推動綠建材產業鏈結模式,可瞭解再生產業所遭遇之缺口問題,並經由物質流及資金流模式分析,評估以回收材料替代原生材料後所衍生之相關效益,以彰顯綠建材循環經濟產業體系之整體效益。

建議二

綠建材標章參照我國第二類環保標章作法,研擬評定機制:立即可行建議

主辦機關:內政部建研所

協辦機關:財團法人台灣建築中心

分析加拿大環境選擇標章及我國第二類環保標章範例,建議綠建材標章可參照我國第二類環保標章作法,研擬評定機制,提供對於具節能、生態、資源循環等特性之優良建材,雖然既有評定基準未能納入,也可據以取得綠建材標章。

建議三

建立綠建材標章產品基本資訊:中長期建議

主辦機關:內政部建研所

協辦機關:內政部營建署、各營造業者、各綠建材業者

目前再生綠建材標章產品多使用工業廢棄物再生,其成分較穩定且統一,故業者可據此控制再生製程。然而,未來無論推動綠建材重複使用或再生利用,再利用者皆須要了解建材之材料或特性,故有必要發展類似建材護照之產品基本資訊,與再利用注意事項。



英文摘要


Ⅰ.Introduction

In recent years, the international community has been promoting the zero waste circular economy concepts, and striving to establish a circular societal system which is based on the achievements of optimal production, optimal consumption, and minimal waste approach. In line with this approach, the Architecture and Building Research Institute (ABRI) of the Ministry of the Interior has also been promoting the green building concept over the years, and launched the Green Building Materials Labeling Program in 2004 to drive the development of the green building materials industry. The ecolabeling of green building materials is often considered an essential part of any national energy conservation and carbon emissions reducing program which is especially true in Taiwan, as Taiwan depends on imports to meet most of its demands for energy and resources. Therefore, how to optimize the uses of limited available resources and fulfill the commitments of “leading Taiwan towards the era of circular economy and convert waste into renewable resources,” as proclaimed in President Tsai Ing-wen’s 2016 inaugural address, have become extremely important tasks in Taiwan’s government policies and objectives towards achieving the circular economy.  

In order to strengthen the circular economy benefits achieved through promoting green building materials, relevant assessments and studies should be conducted on circular economy indicators, as reflected in the characteristics of green building materials. Waste reduction and resource recycling should also be used as the main evaluation criteria. In order to study the relationship between supply and demand of relevant industries’ supply chain, green building materials closely associated with circular economy should also be used as examples and studied while establishing linkage of circular economy industries based on green building materials.

Ⅱ.Research Methodology and Processes

This project first collected domestic and international information on laws and regulations, standards and criteria, and management approaches of relevance to the circular economy; then used such information to analyze how to introduce the circular economy framework into green building materials industries, and proposed recommendations on the promotion directions of green building materials. This project also selected industry partners and provided assistance to help them in establishing demonstration models in circular economy based on the life cycle concept of green building materials.

Moreover, for green building materials conforming to the concepts of circular economy, drafts of relevant assessment mechanism and evaluation criteria have been developed with reference to other ecolabeling programs (such as the program for Taiwan EPA’s Type II environmental protection products) to expand the channels for innovative recycled building materials to participate in Green Building Materials Labeling Program. Information sessions and discussion seminars attended by multiple stakeholders were also organized by this project to discuss issues related to promotion and application strategies for resource recycling and reuse of building materials. Finally, draft standards and criteria for evaluation of green building materials were developed in line with the current development and future trends of circular economy.

In order to make good use of ABRI’s testing capacity, an inventory of the facilities and capacity of ABRI Test Center’s Green Building Materials Laboratory was established. Industry partners were selected to take part in the cooperation project with the Green Building Materials Laboratory, and the results of their cooperation were reviewed in a formal review meeting organized by this project. Based on results of the cooperation project, recommendations on how to improve the equipment and capacity of the Green Building Materials Laboratory, and strategies on conducting future cooperation projects among partners from the industries, academia and research organizations, as well as assessments of economic benefits achieved through circular economy were presented in the final project report.

Ⅲ.Key Findings

During this research, it was found that difficulties encountered by the domestic green building materials industry in introducing the circular economy framework included: lack of consumers' willingness to use recycled products, government procurement only offers limited incentives for purchasing recycled products, lack of business models for innovative products with circular economy concepts, and lack of funding for research and development of high added value products. In view of the above difficulties, it is recommended that a labeling and certification system be adopted to ensure product quality and enhance consumers' willingness to use such products. In addition, the procurement practices employed through Japan’s green product procurement promotion law may be adopted which covered engineering type resource products. Other practical promotion approaches may include providing subsidies and incentives to manufacturers using recycled products to encourage production and consumption of such products, and offer assistance and grants in R&D funding to encourage the industry in conducting R&D activities related to business models for innovative products and high added value technologies.   

On the other hand, this study conducted the assessment of economic performance of circular economy industries using examples of two green building materials, namely concrete aggregates (glass sand materials) and high-pressure concrete floor tiles. The study results found the economic and environmental benefits for using such recycled building materials to include: reduce consumption of raw materials by 61,991 tonnes, reduce production of waste materials by 57,679 tonnes, reduce emissions of CO2 by 40,425 tonnes, save $30.20 million New Taiwan Dollars (NTD) in raw material costs, and reduce $130 million NTD in waste disposal fees. The established linkage of green building materials’ circular economy industrial system can help resolve the difficulties relevant industries encountered in introducing the circular economy framework, and highlight the significant benefits of adopting green building materials in the circular economy.

IV.Recommendations

Based on the research results, this study proposed the following short-term (immediate actions), medium-term and long-term recommendations, which can be used to promote the circular economy framework of green building materials.

Recommendation 1 (short-term (immediate) actions)

Continue to promote the establishment of linkage for green building materials industry’s circular economy

Leading organization: ABRI of Ministry of the Interior

Participating organizations: manufacturers of various green building materials

Promote the linkage of green building materials industries to study the gaps encountered by the resource recycling industry; and analyze the flows of materials and financial resources to assess the relevant benefits resulting from replacing virgin materials with recycled materials, so as to highlight the overall benefits achieved through establishing the circular economy industrial system for the green building materials.

Recommendation 2 (short-term (immediate) actions)

Adopt the approach used for Taiwan EPA’s Type II green products in development of qualified product evaluation mechanism/criteria

Leading organization: ABRI of the Ministry of Interior

Participating organization: Taiwan Architecture and Building Center

After analyzing North America’s Environmental Choice Program and Taiwan EPA’s Type II Green Products Program, it is recommended that Green Building Materials Labeling Program follows the approaches of Type II Program in developing product evaluation mechanism to enhance participation of innovative recycled building products. For recycled building products with characteristics including disassemble design, recyclable, reusable, recycled content, extended product life, reduced resource use, waste reduction, and contain specific ratio of domestic recycled materials, even though such products may not be allowed under the existing product criteria, they may still be awarded the Green Building Materials Label under the revised qualified product evaluation scheme.

Recommendation 3 (medium and long-term actions)

Establish basic information for green building materials labeled products

Leading organization: ABRI

Participating organizations: Construction and Planning Agency of the Ministry of the Interior, participating construction companies and green building materials manufacturers

At present, recycled industrial waste is being used in most Green Building Materials Label products, as the quality and compositions of these materials are relatively stable and easier for control of the recycling process. However, in the future, with the promotion of greater re-use or recycling of green building materials, the product users or consumers will need to better understand the materials or characteristics of such building materials. Therefore, it is necessary to develop basic information of these products using schemes such as building material passports, or provide additional information on product re-uses.

Recommendation 4 (medium and long-term actions)

The government should stipulate the mandatory use of recycled products, and provide incentives and subsidies for conducting relevant research and development activities

Leading organization: Ministry of the Interior

Participating organizations: Construction and Planning Department of the Ministry of the Interior, ABRI, Construction Research Institute of the Ministry of the Interior, and Public Construction Commission of the Executive Yuan

Domestic public construction projects which can use up a huge amount of green building materials are important means for consumption of recycled products, and greater adoption of resource-recycled products in public works is a greater way to promote the circular economy of domestic green building materials. Therefore, the implementation guidelines for public construction projects should stipulate the mandatory use of recycled products, and provide incentives and subsidies for conducting relevant research and development activities for innovative products’ business models and high added value technologies.